Size Effects in Catalysis by Supported Metal Nanoparticles
Catalysis in Industry
, E-ISSN: 2070-0555
Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk
This paper is concerned with the study of size effects in reactions of low-temperature CO oxidation on the catalysts Au/γ-Al2O3 and Au/δ-Al2O3 and complete oxidation of methane on the catalysts Pt/γ-Al2O3. For the synthesis of gold catalysts, four techniques have been applied: ionic adsorption, deposition-precipitation, chemical liquid-phase grafting, and decomposition of volatile gold complexes. Platinum catalysts have been prepared by aluminum oxide impregnation with aqueous solutions of H2[Pt(OH)6] that, depending on preparation conditions, contained mono- or oligonuclear hydroxocomplexes of platinum. Series of catalyst samples with a narrow size distribution of particles and a mean size variation from 0.5–1 to 20–25 nm have been prepared. The study of the catalytic properties of the prepared catalysts has shown that a decrease in mean size of supported metal particles leads to a sharp increase in specific catalytic activity in both systems. The activity maximum has been achieved for active component particles of 2–3 nm. A conclusion has been made that the application of nanosize catalysts is promising for the cleaning of air in closed rooms and vehicle exhaust gases from CO, for the utilization of methane, and for the obtaining of energy by the combustion of natural gas.