State of Palladium in Palladium–Aluminosilicate Catalysts As Studied by XPS and the Catalytic Activity
of the Catalysts in the Deep Oxidation of Methane
Kinetics and Catalysis
, E-ISSN: 1608-3210
Institute of Hydrocarbons Processing SB RAS
Boreskov Institute of Catalysis SB RAS
Palladium catalysts based on Siralox and AS aluminosilicate supports for the deep oxidation of methane were studied. With the use of XRD analysis, it was found that they were heterophase systems consisting of an amorphous aluminosilicate and γ-Al2O3 stabilized against agglomeration. It was found that the catalytic activity of palladium-aluminosilicate catalysts in the deep oxidation of methane at 500°C depended on the support precalcination temperature. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to study the states of the AS-30 aluminosilicate support calcined at 600, 800, or 1000°C and palladium supported on it. It was found that the action of an acid impregnation solution of palladium nitrate on the aluminosilicate calcined at 800°C resulted in a structural rearrangement of the aluminosilicate surface. This rearrangement resulted in the stabilization of both palladium oxide and palladium metal particles at surface defects and the incorporation of these particles into the aluminosilicate after catalyst calcination. As a result, an anomalous decrease in catalytic activity was observed in aluminosilicate samples calcined at 800°C. According to XPS data, palladium in the catalyst was stabilized in the following three phases: metal (E b(Pd 3d 5/2) = 334.8 eV), oxide (E b(Pd 3d 5/2) = 336.8 eV), and “interaction” (E b(Pd 3d 5/2) = 335.8 eV) phases. The ratio between these phases depended on support and catalyst calcination temperatures. The interaction phase, which consisted of PdOx clusters stabilized in the aluminosilicate structure, was responsible for the retention of activity after calcination at high temperatures (800°C). Based on an analysis of XPS data, it was hypothesized that palladium in the interaction phase occurred in a charged state with the formal charge on the Pd atom close to 1 + (δ+ phase).