Synthesis of Hierarchically Structured Carbon-Carbon and Carbon-Mineral Nanocomposites for Various Applications
Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) are widely used in composites, adsorption and catalysis. Nevertheless, CNF produced as a powder has certain limitations in application, such as agglomeration in polymer matrix that leads to deterioration of composite properties. Possible way to solve such problem is to tailor carbon nanofilaments to microfibers (MFs). This approach permits one to combine benefits from using nanostructures (developed surface area and pore structure) and macro objects (strength and convenience in handling). We have synthesized the series of carbon-carbon and carbon-mineral nanocomposites (CNF/MF) with controllable properties and explored their potential in polymer composites and catalysis.
Hierarchically structured materials based on reinforcement fibers were synthesized via CCVD technique. Obtained materials are characterized with rather high surface area (up to 300 m2/g). A special method based on using ultrasound treatment in combination with TEM study has been designed for evaluation of the anchorage strength between CNFs and supporting fibers. The anchorage strength of CNF-layer was found to increase in a following row: glass ~ basalt < carbon fiber.
Carbon-carbon nanocomposites were found to have an improving effect upon physical and mechanical properties of various modified polymer matrices. In addition, the developed CNF/MF materials were tested in model catalytic reactions and demonstrated higher catalytic performance if compare with conventional carbon-supported catalysts.